Look now at three relatively contemporary examples (ITEMS 3.6, 3.7 and 3.8), which are not easily distinguished from pictures and clearly have aesthetic qualities as well as practical ones. What elements in ITEMS 3.6 and 3.7 would you say make them maps, and what elements give them the character of pictures? Is the Leonardo da Vinci example (ITEM 3.8) neither a map nor a picture? Why not? Is it a diagram? What is it about the Enniskillen map (ITEM 3.9) that makes it a rather doubtful example of a map by Western standards?
Verona, Lake Garda and the Adige valley (mid-15th century).
Siege of Enniskillen (1594).